Hydrocephalus is the accumulation of fluid in the ventricles deep within the brain. The excessive fluid doubles the size of the ventricles and establishes stress on the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid usually runs through the ventricles and scrubs the brain and spinal column. But when there is too much pressure cerebrospinal fluid connected with hydrocephalus can impair brain tissues and cause a range of injury in brain function.

Hydrocephalus can appear at any age, but it happens more often among infants and adults 60 and over. Surgical procedure for hydrocephalus can repair and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels in the brain. There are different therapies which are usually required to manage symptoms or functional impairments emerging from hydrocephalus.


Signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus in infants include:

  • Variations in the head
  • An extraordinarily large head
  • A bulging or tense soft spot (fontanel) on the top of the head
  • Physical signs and symptoms
  • Vomiting
  • Drowsiness
  • Impatience
  • Poor feeding
  • Convulsions
  • Eyes corrected downward
  • Deficiencies in muscle tone and strength

Among toddlers and older children, signs and symptoms may include:

  • Headache
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Sleepiness or lethargy
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Inconstant balance
  • Poor coordination
  • Poor appetite
  • Seizures
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Behavioral and cognitive changes
  • Irritability
  • Change in personality
  • Drop in school performance